January 17, 2018

5717 DNA Testing

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One of the technological tools in determining what makes humans, human is DNA testing. On many a daytime sensational talk show, the question “Who is the Father?” is answered through DNA testing. The same rationale and modes applies to dogs. Today, people can use the DNA code within the genetic make-up of their favorite pooch to discover a variety of information.

What is DNA?

DNA is the basic building blocks of mammals. The genetic code of who your canine is lies within the nuclear DNA. This exists within the cells of the body. Among dogs, approximately 19,000 canine genes have been recorded. Of this number, your dog has about 14,200 in common with humans. The rest are uniquely canine.

A dog’s mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is different without about 99.9% inherited from the mother. Doggy DNA reveals the breed difference in the microsatellite DNA. This is the repeated sequences along the chain.

What Does DNA Testing Involve?

DNA testing is a simple process. Depending upon the actual process, you will send a sample of your dog’s blood, hair or other part to the specified genetic laboratory for testing. You can swab the inside of your dog’s mouth with a Q-tip, place it in a sealed vial and send it off. Some labs and testing facilities may require samples from your dog and both the parents. This is if the issue of the canine’s parentage is questionable.

You then send it off to any of the services advertised on line. Alternatively, you can actually purchase a kit. You can then perform the case at home.

Why do DNA Testing?

There are several reasons behind DNA testing of your dog. Some pertain specifically to breeders and potential owners. Others are part of the owner’s decision to discover the heritage or ancestry of their mixed breed canine. Essentially, the reasons for doing DNA testing fall into the following major categories.

* Information on the degree of purity of their dog – Some breeders provide you with DNA evidence of the purebred nature of their line of dogs. For possible purchasers, it is one way of making sure their canine is purebred and not a close-match
* Information on the ancestry of the dog – Researchers are using DNA to map the history of the dog. By using DNA they have discovered the closest ancestors of the dog and are continuing to find more information about the early origins
* Information on what type of dog you have – Owners with mixed breeds want to know what kind of dog they have. They want to identify their beloved mutt’s breed mix.
* Health issues – If you have a mixed breed, you may want to identify the major contributing breeds to look for potential health risks. If you have a purebred dog, you want to screen for health risks. Does your dog carry a specific gene common to some breeds of dogs or only in a small percentage of the breed? DNA testing will help screen for inherited diseases

DNA testing can do all these things, but there are limitations. The DNA bank may contain a finite number of identifiable breeds. Check with the service you are employing before you decide to opt for a test.

Conclusion

DNA testing is a tool for researchers, vets, breeders, owners and potential owners to learn more about their canine. It can help screen for genetic disorders and health risks. It can verify parentage and perform genotyping. For some individuals, it helps them access the risk to their dog while, for others, DNA testing is a fun way to discover what breeds of dog make up their beloved mutt.

Article by Pat Booth, shop for free shipping on dog food like Natural Balance pet food online!

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Help My Dog Is Expecting

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Sometimes, no matter how responsible of a dog owner you may be, you find that you have a pregnant pooch on your hands. You may also be breeding your female to produce a very planned litter of puppies or this may be a complete surprise. Regardless of a planned or unexpected pregnancy there are some feeding considerations for the mother to help her before the birth of the puppies and as long as she is responsible for their nutrition.

Many female dogs have little change in behavior or physical appearance for the first several weeks of their pregnancy. The average length of gestation is about 62-63 days or just over two months. Typically for the first couple of weeks after a successful breeding you may notice a slight drop in consumption of food and perhaps some vomiting and diarrhea, but this is not always present.

By about the end of the first month to the fifth week your pregnant female should begin to increase her food intake. Generally breeders and vets recommend that this increase should be about twenty percent of her typical food completed gradually. So, if she is a small dog and eats one cup of food per day, at this time she should be consuming a cup and a quarter. A larger dog that eats four cups a day should now be up to five. There is no need to change brands or protein levels providing you are feeding a brand that has protein from meat not from meat by-products. Hard boiled eggs can be added to the dog food for a very healthy protein source, just limit it to one or two a day depending on the size of the dog. Do not feed raw eggs on a regular basis.

After the fifth week your dog will begin to eat more and gain weight. Some females will increase their food consumption by up to thirty percent the end of this time period. It is important to carefully monitor both food intake and weight gain. It is dangerous to both the puppies and the mother if there is too rapid of a weight gain during this stage of gestation. Lots of additional fat can cause extreme pressure on the female’s joints and muscles can contribute to problems with whelping.
The last three to four weeks of the pregnancy are the most essential for the puppies as this is their rapid growth stage.

Switching the female over to a high quality puppy chow or feeding a specialized diet for pregnant or lactating dogs is essential. Keep in mind you don’t have to feed a specialized diet, just look for a good quality protein source in a puppy food. Try increasing feeding times to several smaller meals a day to keep the mother’s blood sugars level and allow her to get the quantity of food she requires. Remember her stomach area is now smaller due to the increasing size of the puppies. This is true in all breeds, but particularly important for those breeds that have the larger litters.

Article by Kerry Delfino, check out natural dog food delivery on great brands like Wellness pet food online!

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The Basics Of Home Cooked Dog Foods

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Many dog owners struggle to provide their pets with the very best in nutritional offerings in everything from their food to their treats. Most recognize that commercially developed dog foods may contain ingredients that are causing their dogs to have digestive disorders or other types of health issues. Other dog owners just want to feed their dogs holistic or organic types of foods that they know completely what they contain.

There are options for cooking and preparing your own types of dog food. There is also the option to incorporate a raw food type of diet, also known as a BARF diet. Either option is a possibility but they are certainly not for everyone. In the most general sense making home cooked dog food is great for those with small and medium sized dogs but once you start getting into multiple dogs or the large or giant breeds it becomes more problematic.

The biggest issue for most people today is finding the time to actually shop, prepare and cook for your pets. Granted cooking isn’t as specific as for human consumption and you can largely use ingredients from the kitchen, but you do have to ensure that the food is nutritionally sound. This means sticking to some type of proportion control in your batches to include protein, fats and small amounts of carbohydrates. Many home cooks make the mistake of adding too large a percentage of carbohydrates resulting in overweight and unhealthy pets over time.

The good news is that domestic dogs are very adaptable to different types of foods. While the original wolf ancestors may have been rather strict carnivores, domestic dogs are now more omnivores, meaning they can tolerate carbohydrates much better. High fat diets are also a problem for dogs, just as they are for humans. Any home made diets should have a good source of fat such as beef fat or chicken fat but they shouldn’t include large quantities of bacon fat, grease or margarine or butter. This is because the later contain a lot of salt, which can also contribute to health problems over time.

Generally most recipes should include about equal amounts of proteins from meats and a good mix of slow and rapid fermenting carbohydrates. Five to ten percent of the total meal should be made up of a good fat, including Omega 3 fatty acids found in flax seed oil. Good choices for the proteins include low fat types of ground beef, ground turkey or ground chicken. Cold water fish including salmon or halibut are also good additions but be careful to check for mercury and ensure they are wild caught as much as possible. This eliminates the concern of growth supplements or chemicals in the fish.
Good sources of carbohydrates are found in everyone’s kitchen. They must be cooked to be of use to your dog but they can include wheat based products such as whole grain pasta or small amounts of organic bread. Rice and potatoes are also good choices for any dog’s diet. Oatmeal, peas, beans and carrots can be added for color as well a variety.

Article by Owen Gates, check out Petflow for Innova pet food & Chicken Soup for the Pet Lover online!

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